Limpets were gathered and eaten by northwest coast cultures including the Makah, Coast Salish, Nootka (Nuu-chah-nulth), Southern Kwakiutl (Kwakwaka'wakw), Nuxalk, Tlingit and Aleut [1-10]. Although concentration of limpets differed along the shore, they were available throughout the year and were a reliable resource [3, 5-7, 10, 11]. They were found in abundance on most beaches attached to rocks in the intertidal zone [1, 3, 10, 12]. Women detached them with a prying stick [4, 8, 10]. Limpets were usually eaten raw by scooping the meat from the shell; they were also boiled and steamed [1, 13].
The Manhousat are reported to have gathered plate limpets and shield limpets .
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7. McCartney AP: Prehistory of the Aleutian Region. In: Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 5: Arctic. edn. Edited by Damas D. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution; 1984: 119-135.
8. Moss ML: Shellfish, Gender, and Status on the Northwest Coast: Reconciling Archeological, Ethnographic, and Ethnohistorical Records of the Tlingit. American Anthropologist 1993, 95(3):631-652.
9. Olsen SL: Animals in American Indian Life: An Overview. In: Stars Above, Earth Below American Indians and Nature. edn. Edited by Bol MC. Dublin: Roberts Rinehart Publishers; 1998: 95-118.
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11. Jewitt JR: Captive of The Nootka Indians: The Northwest Coast Adventure of John R. Jewitt, 1802-1806. Boston: Back Bay Books; Distributed by Northeastern University Press; 1993.
12. Port Simpson Curriculum Committee: Port Simpson Foods: A Curriculum Development Project. In. Prince Rupert: The People of Port Simpson and School District No. 52; 1983.
13. Ellis DW, Swan L: Teachings of The Tides: Uses of Marine Invertebrates By The Manhousat People, vol. 1st edition. Nanaimo, B.C.: Theytus Books Ltd.; 1981.